What is science diplomacy? Why is it important in a world marked by global challenges such as climate change and confrontation between great powers? What knowledge can be mobilised to study this emerging field of practice and research? The chapters in this volume provide initial answers to these questions, examining different aspects of science diplomacy, both from a theoretical point of view and by presenting real world case studies. The intent of the book is to offer an introduction to an increasingly important theme in the relations between science, society and politics. Consequently, it is addressed to all those (students, researchers, decision-makers) who are approaching science diplomacy for the first time.